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PyDARN is an open source python library for data visualization of SuperDARN data. The source code can be found on the pyDARN github page, with installation instructions found here. PyDARN currently allows for the production of summary plots, range-time plots and time-series plotting. This functionality will be extended as the library is expanded.
PyDARN Online gives you the ability to to produce your own pyDARN plots, with limited options, without having to download and install the whole python library. Select the type of plot from the drop down list, and fill in the form to produce your required plot. It may take up to 2 minutes to produce and display a plot with 24 hours of data, for this reason, the largest epoch plottable via pyDARN online is 48 hours. The plots produced on this site are not suitable for publication. Examples of each plot type and a description of the variables presented can be found below. If the radar chosen is managed by SuperDARN Canada, links to download the data files can be found below the plot.
Click to buttons below to expand information boxes.
SuperDARN Canada produces data files as we get them, and as such pyDARN online may not display plots where data was taken in the past few days. Please see out citations policy below or our Data Products page for more information on how to cite SuperDARN data and software.
You can check our inventory of data by using the ' Check Inventory' button. A calendar of the chosen month and radar will be shown, days which have full data coverage are shown in dark blue, days with partial data coverage are shown in pale blue. If a date has been block listed, the day will not be coloured in. If you require data which has been block listed, you can contact the PI of the radar to get more infomation about why that day might be block listed.
Pre-made 24 hr (00:00-23:59) summary plots are available here to browse. Some radars allow for real-time data streaming, if you are looking for the current radar activity, see the real time fan plots and real time range-time plots.
|Required Parameter Name||Description||Example Useage|
|Start Date and Time||The start date and time of the interval of interest, enter the date as yyyy-mm-dd or choose from the pop up calendar. Choose the time interval from the dropdown list. FITACF files are organised into two hour intervals, data plotted will include the full file with which the inputted start date is enclosed in.||Choose from calendar and dropdown|
|End Date and Time||The end date and time of the interval of interest, enter the date as yyyy-mm-dd or choose from the pop up calendar. If you have chosen a start date, the end date will automatically be filled with that date. Choose the time interval from the dropdown list. FITACF files are organised into two hour intervals, data plotted will include the full file with which the inputted end date is enclosed in. The end time cannot be more than 48 hours from the start time.||Choose from calendar and dropdown|
|Radar||Select desired radar from the list of all SuperDARN radars. University of Saskatchewan maintained radars are at the top of the list followed by northern, then southern radars.||Select from dropdown|
|Beam||SuperDARN radars have varying numbers of beams for each radar. Most have beams numbers from 0-16, 0-22 or 0-24. Be aware that some beams may not have data even if adjacent beams do, it is common for lower numbered beams on radars with 22+ number of beams to be empty of data. This field will automatically update the beam numbers available, so don't forget to reselect the beam if a new radar is chosen.||Select from dropdown|
|Parameter (Range-Time and Time-Series only)||Select the parameter you wish to plot. For Range-Time plots, you can choose from line-of-sight velocity (ms-1), spectral width (ms-1), power (dB), and elevation (°). Slant ranges are included in a future pyDARN release and as such are not available online yet. For Time-Series plots, you can choose from sky noise (db), transmission frequency (MHz), number of pulsed sequences (Nave), and operation mode (CPID)||Select from dropdown|
|Optional Parameter Name||Description||Example Useage|
|Groundscatter (Velocity data only)||If option 'Grey' is chosen, the groundscatter data will appear grey in the velocity data only for Summary plots and Range-Time plots. If 'Not Grey' is chosen, the underlying groundscatter data can be seen. The default is to have the groundscatter greyed out.||Select from dropdown|
|Y-Axis Units||Select required units from either Slant Range in kilometers, or Range Gates. The default is Slant Range.||Select from dropdown|
|Velocity Range||Select required range from the dropdown. The default setting is -200 to 200 m/s but this may not be large enough to see some structures.||Select from dropdown|
|SNR Range||Select required range from the dropdown. The default value is 0 to 50 dB, however this may be too large or too small to see some structures.||Select from dropdown|
|Spectral Width Range||Select required range from the dropdown. The default value is 0-250 m/s, however this may be too small or too large to see some structures.||Select from dropdown|
|Elevation Range||Select a range from the dropdown. The default value is 0-50 degrees, however this may be too small or too large to see some structures.||Select from dropdown|
|Colorbar Max Value||This option allows the user to select the maximum value of the colour bar for the chose parameter in a Range-Time plot. The default for line-of-sight velocity is 200 m/s, for SNR (power) is 50 dB, for spectral width is 250 m/s and for elevation is 50 degrees. The form will accept any positive number. The value selected for the velocity will be used as an absolute limit, setting the lower bound as the negative of the input. All other options give 0 as a minimum value by default.||200|
The plots show signal to noise ratio (dB), velocity (ms-1), spectral width (ms-1), and elevation (°) with respect to the range gate number, or slant range, and date. In addition, sky noise (dB), operating frequency of the radar (MHz), number of pulsed sequences transmitted (Nave), and the mode of operation (CPID) are shown in the first three panels. The figure below shows an example plot of beam 4 of the Saskatoon radar operating on March 4th 2020.
Range-time parameter plots (also known as range-time intensity (RTI) plots) are time series of a radar-measured parameter at range gates 0-75 along a specific beam. Currently pyDARN online supports plotting line-of-sight velocity (ms-1), spectral width (ms-1), power (dB), and elevation (°). The data cam be plotted with either slant range or range gates along the y-axis. The figure below shows an example plot of velocity for beam 4 of the Saskatoon radar operating on March 4th 2020
This plot selection will allow you to plot any of the scalar parameters for a selected beam. The parameters include sky noise (db), transmission frequency (MHz), number of pulsed sequences (Nave), and operation mode (CPID).The figure below shows an example plot of transmission frequency for beam 4 of the Saskatoon radar operating on March 4th 2020
Any publications using SuperDARN Data must include the following text in their acknowledgements:
"The authors acknowledge the use of SuperDARN data. SuperDARN is a collection of radars funded by national scientific funding agencies of Australia, Canada, China, France, Italy, Japan, Norway, South Africa, United Kingdom and the United States of America."
During your study, if using data from individual radars only, please contact the Principal Investigator (PI) of that radar about potential co-authorship. A list of radars, institutions, and their PI's information can be found here.
For SuperDARN Canada managed radars (Saskatoon, Rankin Inlet, Inuvik, Clyde River, and Prince George), contact Dr. Kathryn McWilliams of the University of Saskatchewan.
SuperDARN is a made up of 36 radars and 20 institutions, to cite SuperDARN generally, the following reference can be used:
Greenwald, R.A., Baker, K.B., Dudeney, J.R. et al. Space Sci Rev (1995) 71: 761. doi:10.1007/BF00751350
For the general achievements of the SuperDARN Network, the following papers and references within can be used:
Chisham, G., Lester, M., Milan, S.E. et al. A decade of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN): scientific achievements, new techniques and future directions. Surv Geophys 28, 33–109 (2007) doi:10.1007/s10712-007-9017-8
Nishitani, N., Ruohoniemi, J.M., Lester, M. et al. Review of the accomplishments of mid-latitude Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) HF radars. Prog Earth Planet Sci 6, 27 (2019) doi:10.1186/s40645-019-0270-5